LEDs (light emitting diodes) are solid-state semiconductor devices that can convert electrical energy directly into light.
Low power consumption
LED consume very little power, far less than standard light bulbs leading to greatly reduced energy costs and extremely enhanced global energy savings. LEDs also require far less energy to manufacture than other light sources, reducing the environmental impact of artificial lighting even further. Generally a LED is designed to operate at 2 – 3.6V, 0.02-0.03A current which means a LED typically requires no more than 0.1W to operate.
LEDs are rugged, solid state devices and are not susceptible to vibration such as with incandescent filament based bulbs.
When operating at specified voltage, current, and within specified environmental conditions, LEDs can enjoy a long life of up to 100,000 hours.
High Luminous Efficiency and Low Heat Emitting
Due to the special materials that are used to manufacture LEDs during electrons transition, LED's mainly emit electromagnetic energy in the visible parts of spectrum. This is unlike incandescent filaments which are heated and emit large amounts of electromagnetic energy in the infrared spectrum which can't be seen and is felt as heat. That is to say, LEDs can convert significantly more of the energy applied into light, and therefore LEDs have a higher luminous efficiency with substantially lower amounts of heat produced.
LEDs are made from non-toxic materials, unlike fluorescent lights that contain mercury which poses a danger to the environment and human health. LEDs are recyclable.
The LED semi-conductor chip is completely embedded in an epoxy resin enclosure which is much more sturdy than traditional glass bulbs and fluorescent tubes. They are solid-state technology thus no loose and moving parts which makes LEDs virtually indestructible
Intensity, Beam Angle, and Viewing Angle
LED light output varies with the type of chip, encapsulation process, as well as other variables. Generally, the amount of light emitted from a LED is quantified by a single point, on-axis luminous intensity value (LV), and is specified in milli-candela (MCD). A LED with higher luminous intensity value does not mean that it has higher total light output. To measure the total light output, the viewing angle must be taken into account too. LED viewing angle is also a function of the LED chip type and the epoxy lens that distributes the light. LEDs with different chips and epoxy lens will have different viewing angles. lf two LEDs have the same luminous intensity value, the lamp with the larger viewing angle will have the higher total light output.